การเจริญระยะเอ็มบริโอของกบ

          ไข่กบมีลักษณะกลม ครึ่งบนมีสีเทาเข้มเกือบดำ ครึ่งล่างมีสีขาวเหลืองเป้นบริเวณที่มีไข่แดงซึ่งเป็นอาหารสะสมอยู่หนาแน่น ขณะไข่กบลอยน้ำด้านสีดำจะอยู่ด้านบน ทำให้กลมกลืนกับสีของผิวน้ำและรับความร้อนจากแสงสว่างได้ดี ด้านที่มีสีขาวเหลืองอละมีไข่แดงหนาแน่นจะหนักกว่า จึงอยู่ด้านล่าง 

          ไข่กลมเมื่อถูกผสมจากอสุจิเป็นไซโกตแล้ว  ก็จะแบ่งเซลล์แบบไมโทซีสจาก 1 เป็น 2 4 8 ไปเรื่อยๆ โดยที่ขนาดของเซลล์เล็กลงทุกที ในขณะที่จำนวนเซลล์เพิ่มขึ้นระยะนี้เรียกว่า คลีเวจ (cleavage) จนได้เอ็มบริโอรูปร่างคล้ายน้อยหน่าเรียกว่า มอรูลา (morula) จากนั้นเซลล์ที่อยู่ด้านในจะเคลื่อนที่แยกออกจากกันทำให้เกิดช่องว่างขึ้น ระยะนี้เรียกว่า บลาสทูลา (blastula) และต่อมาพบว่าเซลล์ที่อยู่ด้านบนจะมีการแบ่งเซลล์อย่างรวดเร็วกว่าเซลล์ที่อยู่ด้านล่าง มีผลทำให้เซลล์ด้านบนเคลื่อนที่ลงมาคลุมด้านล่างไว้ พร้อมทั้งดันเซลล์ด้านล่างให้บุ๋มเข้าไปข้างบน  แล้วเซลล์ด้านบนที่แบ่งลงมาก็เคลื่อนที่ตามเข้าไป ผลจากการเคลื่อนย้ายเซลล์ที่เกิดขึ้นดังกล่าว มีผลทำให้เซลล์ต่าง ๆ ของตัวอ่อนเรียงกันเป็นชั้น ๆและมีช่องใหม่เกิดขึ้นคือ แกสโทรซีส (gastrocoel) ซึ่งบริเวณปากช่องแกสโทรซีสคือบลาสโทพอร์ ซึ่งทั้งส่วนจะเจริญเป็นทางเดินอาหาร โดยพบว่าส่วนของบลาสโทพอร์จะเจริญเป็นทวารหนัก ส่วนตรงข้ามกับบลาสโทพอร์ จะเปลี่ยนแปลงไปเป็นปาก ดังนั้นกบจึงเป็นสัตว์ที่มีทวารหนักเกิดก่อนปาก (dueterostrome) ในขณะที่บลาสโทซีสจะมีขนาดเล็กลงเรื่อย ๆ เนื่องจากถูกเบียดจนแฟบและหายไปในขณะที่ช่องแกสโทรซีลขยายใหญ่ขึ้น 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ภาพการเปลี่ยนแปลงในระยะแกสทรูลาของเอ็มบริโอกบ

 

 

 

 

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