การเจริญระยะเอ็มบริโอของไก่ 

            เซลล์ของไข่ไก่คือส่วนที่เรียกว่าไข่แดงเท่านั้น ไข่ขาวและเปลือกไข่เป็นส่วนประกอบที่อยู่ภายนอกเซลล์ ไก่มีการปฏิสนธิภายในตัว(internal  fertilization) อสุจิจะเข้าปฏิสนธิกับไข่ก่อนที่จะมีการไข่ขาวและเปลือกไข่มาหุ้ม เซลล์ของไข่ไก่จะเต็มไปด้วยไข่แดง มีเพียงบริเวณเล็ก ๆ ใกล้ ๆผิวเซลล์เท่านั้นที่ไม่มีไข่แดงอยู่ ส่วนเล็ก ๆนี้มีนิวเคลียสและไซโทพลาซึมอยู่ (germinal spot) ไข่แดงเป็นอาหารสะสมสำหรับเลี้ยงตัวอ่อนที่อยู่ในแวคิวโอลของเซลล์ (food vacuole)เมื่ออสุจิเข้าปฏิสนธิกับนิวเคลียสของไข่ก็จะได้ไซโกตและคลีเวจทันที การแบ่งเซลล์นี้จะเกิดจะเกิดขึ้นเรื่อยๆ จนได้เอ็มบริโอระยะมอรูลา บลาสทูราและแกสทรูลา ตามลำดับซึ่งจะทำให้จุดบนไข่แดงเกิดเป็นบริเวณกว้างขึ้น เรียกว่า germinal disc หรือ  embryonic disc  แกสทรูลาของเอ็มบริโอได้เริ่มด้วยการแยกชั้นของเซลล์ในระยะบลาสทูลาออกเป็น  2 ชั้น ชั้นบนเรียกว่า เอพิบลาสต์ (epiblast) ซึ่งจะเจริญเปลี่ยนแปลงไปเป็นเนื้อเยื่อชั้นนอก ส่วนชั้นล่าง (hypoblast) ซึ่งจะเจริญไปเป็นเนื้อเยื่อชั้นในช่องระหว่างชั้นทั้งสองเรียกว่า บลาสโทซีล (blastocoel) ระยะแกสทรูลาจะเกิดการเคลื่อนที่ของเซลล์ชั้นเอพิบลาสต์เข้าไปใน   ช่องบลาสโทซีล  ซึ่งจะเจริญพัฒนาไปเป็นเนื้อเยื่อชั้นกลาง

          เนื้อเยื่อทั้ง 3 ชั้นจะเจริญไปเป็นอวัยวะต่างของไก่ นอกจากเจริญไปเป็นอวัยวะต่าง ๆแล้วยังเจริญไปเป็นโครงสร้างที่อยู่นอกเอ็มบริโอ (extraembryonic structure) 4 อย่างคือ ถุงไข่แดง (yolk sac) ถุงน้ำคร่ำ (amnion) คอเรียน (chorion) และแอลแลนทอยส์ (allantois)  โครงสร้างเหล่านี้จำเป็นสำหรับสิ่งมีชีวิตที่ออกลูกเป็นไข่

          1. ถุงไข่แดง (yolk sac) ภายในบรรจุอาหารคือไข่แดงไว้มีเส้นเลือดมาเลี้ยงมากมาย โดยนำอาหารไปเลี้ยงตัวอ่อน ถุงไข่แดงเจริญมาจากเนื้อเยื่อชั้นในและบางส่วนของเนื้อเยื่อส่วนกลาง เจริญแผ่ลงไปล้อมรอบไข่แดงซึ่งอยู่ข้างล่างแล้วมีการสร้างเส้นเลือดเพื่อลำเลียงอาหารจากเซลล์เอนโดเดอร์มัล (endodermal cell) ไปเลี้ยงตัวอ่อน

 

 

 

 

ภาพที่ 24 แสดงส่วนประกอบต่างๆ ของไข่ไก่ และการพัฒนาของเอ็มบริโอหลังปฏิสนธิ 4 วัน

 

          2. แอนแลนทอยส์ (allantois) เจริญจากเนื้อเยื่อชั้นใน ส่วนเนื้อเยื่อชั้นกลางเจริญเป็นเส้นเลือดไปเลี้ยงถุงแอนแลนทอยส์จะค่อยๆ เจริญออกจากตัวเอ็มบริโอแทรกชิดไปกับเปลือกไข่ ถุงแอนแลนทอยส์ทำหน้าที่ แลกเปลี่ยนแก๊สกับภายนอกและเก็บของเสียพวกกรดยูริก (uric acid) ซึ่งเอ็มบริโอขับออกมา เมื่อเอ็มบริโอมีอายุมากขึ้น ถุงแอนแลนทอยส์ก็มีขนาดใหญ่ขึ้นด้วย

          3. ถุงน้ำคร่ำ (amnion) และคอเรียน (chorion) ถุงทั้งสองเกิดจากการพับซ้อน (folding) ของเนื้อเยื่อชั้นนอกและเนื้อเยื่อชั้นกลาง เรียกว่า แอมนิโอติกโฟลด์ (amniotic fold) การพับซ้อนโดยการยกตัวขึ้นไปเหนือเอ็มบริโอ แล้วเคลื่อนที่ไปเชื่อมกันเป็นถุงน้ำคร่ำ ต่อมามีการหลั่งของเหลวเข้าไปในถุงทำให้ถุงมีขนาดใหญ่ขึ้น เอ็มบริโอจึงลอยตัวอยู่อย่างอิสระ เป็นการช่วยป้องกันการกระทบกระเทือนจากภายนอกให้แก่เอ็มบริโอ เยื่อด้านในที่เชื่อมกันคือถุงน้ำคร่ำอยู่ใกล้เอ็มบริโอ ส่วนเยื่อด้านนอกคือคอเรียนหุ้มอยู่รอบนอกโดยล้อมรอบเอ็มบริโอและโครงสร้างที่อยู่นอกเอ็มบริโอทั้งหมดไว้ระหว่างถุงน้ำคร่ำและคอเรียนเป็นช่องเรียกว่า ช่องคอริโอนิก (chorionic cavity) ซึ่งติดต่อไปถึงช่องเอ็มบริโอได้

          4. เปลือกไข่ (shell) ทำหน้าที่ป้องกันส่วนประกอบทั้งหมดภายในไข่และป้องกันการสูญเสียน้ำได้อย่างดีทำให้ภายในไข่ดำรงสภาพปกติไว้ได้

 

 

 

 

ภาพที่ 25 แสดงการพัฒนาของเอ็มบริโอไก่ภายในไข่ในช่วงเวลาต่าง ๆ

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